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ステファニー米語、高速会話(1)



* はじめに
私は英語喉を習得できた。この習得にはすぐれたテキストと音源が必要である。ところが私がたよりにしてたストリカーズ先生の音源は入手困難となってる。その習得を希望する人のために私の経験をつたえたい。で、すぐれた音源がみつかった。ステファニーさんという米語教師のユーチューブである。これで皆さんにおつたえする。ではまず基本考えである。

* 基本的考え
1) 日本語ネイティブが米語の英語喉をまなぶ
日本語を身につけた人(おそらく高校生以上)が米語(American English)の英語喉をまなぶ。
2) 英語喉の知識を身につけて、それを聞き真似る
まず英語喉の米語がどのようなものか、その知識を身につけ、すぐれた音源をもとに、聞き真似ることにより習得する。
3) 筋肉をうごかし、英語喉の筋肉を身につける
英語喉をつかえば日本語ネイティブにはかならず筋肉痛がおきる。さまざまな筋肉の使い方をこころみ、聞き真似ることをつうじその筋肉を身につける。

* ステファニーさんの紹介
彼女はカリフォルニア生れの米語教師であり、私が活用していたストリカーズ先生の米語とおなじである。非常にうつくしい発音であるが随所に日本語ネイティブをこまらせる発音が登場する。今回のユーチューブは次のとおりである。
Fast Speech | How To Sound Like A Native English Speaker、The English Coach、2018/01/08 に公開

次にしめすが、文字に書き起した英語テキストと必要な部分の解説がある。これをユーチューブをききながらまなんでもらいたい。

* 解説のはじめ
今回は英語喉がどのようなものかを理解してもらいたい。無理に実践しなくてよい。とはいえ聞き真似るのが英語喉習得の王道であるので、そのために重要なイントネーション(声の強弱、高低の変化)と高速で発音するために音の変化と脱落がうまれるが、これにつき解説する。

* 0000, 序
hey what's up Stefanie the English coach here from EnglishFullTime.com. in this video we are going to talk about fast speech and specifically the sounds that change and are eliminated when you start speaking quickly now when I say fast speech I'm not talking about speaking you know super super super fast I'm acturlly talking about speaking regularly the way native speakers speak so what happens is English is not a phonetic language okay words are not pronounced exactly the way that they're written and especially in everyday conversation and casual speech even when you're in a business meeting okay just because this is fast speech (it) doesn't mean you can't use words like this in a business setting

* 0044, ステファニーさんの米語
so if you want to learn how to sound more like a << native >> English speaker this video is going to be really helpful It's also probably going to be frustrating because you're gonna learn and realize so many things you didn't learn before and you're gonna feel like oh my gosh I have so much more to learn don't worry you'll get there anyhow before I begin I want to say a couple of things one I'm from Califonia so I speak with an American accent this video is gonna be really helpful to you if you're trying to learn how to speak more with an American accent If you're trying to learn British English or Australian English I honestly don't think a lot of the things that I'm gonna say will apply to the kind of English that you're trying to learn

ここまでで、「聞き真似る」を実行したらどうか。非常にはやいとおもったかも。ところがはっきりと発音する強音は頑張れる。でも弱音、you、we、thatなどがはいったのはどうか。とてもまねられない。でも英語喉でイントネーションをまね、高速での音の変化と脱落に気をつければ、最後にはできるようになる。

* 0121, bear that in mind
okay so bear that in mind if you decide to watch this video and last thing
早速だが。イントネーションのこと、bear thatの発音にはじめから、thatのおわりまでだが、息の圧をあげる。それがおちる時にinを発音し、mindからあげて、おわる。inをすばやく発音するために、息の圧をたかめておくことが大切な点。またbearでおとさないことも大切。これは、わずかな遅れにつながる。初学者がこれを実践することはほとんど不可能とおもう。英語喉の世界がこんなものかとおもっていただければよい。

before we get started I just want to let you guys know that you can also find me on Instagram Facebook and of course my website so I'll put all those links in the description with that said let's get into it okay so fast speech what is it It's not speaking quickly it's not speaking super fast okay fast speech when I say fast speech I'm literally just referring to the way native speakers speak English It's not necessarily fast it's just that we tend to run words together and by doing that we end up eliminating sounds and changing sounds so I want to go over some examples of that in this video so that you guys can be more aware of it when you're hearing English

* 0203
the problem is that you probably started learning English with textbooks and grammar books so you see how a word is written and then you think okay that's how it should be pronounced but that's not the case because English is not a phonetic language so words are not usually pronounced the way that they're written and then when you include fast speech into this everything gets more complicated on top of that so let me give you some examples of what fast speech is and how we do it so for example the question

* 0237 what are you doing later
what are you doing later I never asked like that when I'm talking to my friends I do not say what are you doing later becuse I have to put so much effort into that entire sentence

what are you --> what ya、whatの「t」にいたるまでに息の圧をあげ、そのあと筋肉の緊張をゆるめ、ya のように発音。これもイントネーションが大切。doing。doの「o」は曖昧母音で通常の音でない。これは舌に特に力をいれず、自然のままに発音。発音が楽で容易。だからはやい。通常の音とiくらべて、わずかだがはやい。つまりこう発音できなければ、すこしおくれる。イントネーションを間違えると、なかなか真似られないし、高速の母音は曖昧母音化する。油断するとついてゆけない。

* 0243
It's exhausting right so what will I say I'll say hey what you're doing later okay that is an example of fast speech and you can learn how to do this just by imitating me right so instead of saying what are you it reduces down to what ya what ya okay and even that ya like that's not even how we say it I'm over pronouncing it just so you can hear that it's not you but it's so reduced okay it's so reduced that it doesn't even sound like ya in the sentence what you're doing later whatcha whatcha do you hear that okay it's crazy right and then doing becomes duing and then later what you're doing later what you doing later hey what you doing later okay another example that I have for you

* 0334, where is he at
the question where is he at hey where is he at where's he at it sounds like where's he at right where's he at where's he at and that's because in fast speech we often eliminate the h's where's he at or

イントネーションが大切。where …… at。頭から息の圧をたかめ、あるいはおとさずatにまでもってゆく。「t」で最高になり、すぐおとしておわる。日本語ネイティブだが、夢中になると英語喉をわすれがち。すると英語ににた上手な日本語の練習となる。注意。英語喉なら「h」がきえるのは自然で特に意識する必要はない。

* 0352、did you give it to him
did you give it to him did you give it to him I'm elimiating the H there did you give it to him

イントネーションが大切。didの「d」まであげyouでおとし、またgiveの「v」まであげてitでおとす。

and then the you I'm not even saying you I could say didya did you give it to him okay so this is one of the reasons why English gets so complicated for people we reduce things down so much that we eliminate sounds and sounds change completely

* 0415, native speaker
so that what we're saying is not even what you're reading or what you think you're hearing so in this lesson I just want to encourage you guys to really pay attention to what you hear if you want to sound like a << native >> speaker you're gonna have to learn how to do all of these reductions that we do and eliminations but here's the thing there are patterns for everything so if you really wanted to you could study the pattern like okay when do << native >> speakers eliminate the h's and why when does did and you change to didya and when does it not okay you can really get does did and you change to didya and when does it not okay you can really get into the nitty-grritty of all of this or you could just listen and listen for the patterns hear them and then incorporate them into your own speech

ここで相当、複雑なことをいう。nativeの「t」は日本語のようにひびかない。やわらか、あるいはよわい。息の圧が「t」にいたるまであがる。そこをすぎるとさがるが、「t」の破裂がよわい。ほとんどひびかない。米語の「t」の発音は複雑で変化が微妙である。<< native >> を文中でしめしておくので聞きくらべてほしい。

okay let's go over some more examples okay another question we can ask is

* 0503, how'd it go
how did it go how did it go but I never say how did it go I say hey how'd it go how'd it go but I never say how did it go I say hey how'd it go this is crazy because I'm not even saying how I'm saying ha ha ha it ha it go

「ha it go」にふくまれてるはずのdidは、どのように発音されてるのか。あるいはitもどうか。私はdidの前の「d」が発音され、すぐ後ろもわずかにひびく。次に「t」がひびき、goが発音されておわる。こう推測するのは、この前の紹介された二例をあわせた推論である。ここまでいうと、日本語とちがう英語喉の不思議な世界がつたわってきませんか。

* 0512
alright no now I'm getting a little bit crazy with the pronunciation but seriously I really just ask people I say hey how'd it go how'd it go if I try to break that apart for you and show you each individual piece the actual sound becomes contorted right because if I say first we start by saying ha and then dee and then go all of the sounds are now contorted because I lengthened them in order to slow it down and show you and then here's what happens that's no longer the true sound that's still not what I'm saying

*0550
so by extending it and trying to slow it down for you to understand it more It's still not what I'm saying so you really have to just listen and train your ear to hear the fast speech then to incorporate it okay and your tongue will learn how to do this quickly but just listen and repeat right how'd it go hey how'd it go hey you went to an interview yesterday how 'd it go alright another question

* 0616, what do you mean
what do you mean I never asked it like that hey what do you mean

これもイントネーションが大切。whatの「t」まで息の圧をあげdoからおとしmeanにつなげる。

that's just too complicated right so I say no what d'you mean what d' you mean okay again I'm I struggled to slow this down because then it's no longer authentic hey what do you mean what d'you mean what do you mean another one

* 0640, can I go
can I go can I go we don't usually ask it like that the can gets reduced and it becomes Kuhn something like that okay listen can I go can I go

ここには高速での音の変化と脱落がある。canの「a」がなくなり高速となる。だがこのcnの前に曖昧母音がひびく。これでcanと発音してるようにきこえる。日本語と比較して英語の発音だが、canで「c」の子音がひびくまえに、わずかにその後にある「a」の母音が漏れだしてる。日本語にはこの母音の響きはない。で、この場合である。曖昧母音がひびいて、canと発音したようにきこえる。だがここに母音をいれると、わずかだが時間がかかる。これがついてゆけない原因となる。ところで、子音の前に母音をひびかす。そんなことができるのかとおもう人もいるだろう。できる。英語喉ならできる。これが私の実感である。

hey can I go with you hey where you guys going can I go I'm not saying can I'm totally eliminating the vowel sound altogether it become khnn khnn the C sound then the nn khnn okay again when I slow it down it's not gonna sound like it usually sounds so I have to say it fast hey can I go can I go alright how are you guys doing are you hanging in there with me because I have several more examples for you right I know these aren't easy the next one

* 0717, how's it going
how is it going okay I don't say how is it going I say hey how's it going how's it going

これもイントネーションに気をつければよい。

how you can think of it like how's it going but with the pattern of the speech it actually sounds like how sit going hey how's it going okay or with the going I can also eliminate the G and say hey how's it going how's it how's it how's it going another one is when we say

ここでは「g」をけして発音というが、私には「g」がひびいてきこえる。その一部がのこって、ひびいてるとおもえてならない。これも英語喉の姿とおもう。

* 0751, would you give it to me
give it to me I can just say it like that hey will you we give it me give it I can't oh my gosh I'm trying to give the example and I can't even do it because I I start thinking about it too much that's the other thing with fast speech it's like something you don't even think about right but you will have to think about it to practice it and then to get it okay so let's say my sister has something and I say hey where is that thing and she says oh it's over here and then I can say oh would you give it to me would you give it to me

イントネーションに気をつければよい。

so now would you instead of would you it becomes would you would you give it to me okay and then the you gets reduced also you guys I just had to take a moment to say that this is complicated isn't it would you give it to me it does it like does it sound like a completely different language does it still sound like English because this is how I talk like this is how I speak with << native >> English-speakers right anyhow

* 0841, I have to go to the store
right anyhow let me give you another example of an H that gets eliminated okay I have to go to the store

「h」がきえる例。英語喉からは自然な変化だが、こう説明されるまで気がつかなかった。hafta(ありいはafta)とかわり、またga daとかわる。私がおどろいたのは、どうやらthe storeとtheを発音してるらしいことだ。というのはゆっくりした発音の段階ではあきらかに発音してる。なので発音者の意識には完全の存在する。高速ではどうか。私は発音してるようにおもう。まことに英語喉の不思議な世界である。

I have to okay so we can say hafta but we also eliminate the H a lot of times I'll just say yeah I 'ave to go to the store later I 'ave to go I 'ave to go I 'ave to go to the store later okay I'm literally saying I afta I 'ave to go to the store later I'm not saying to also did you notice that the to in English gets reduced almost every time to a ta right I have ta go to the store later and then go to becomes goda goda I 'ave to go to the store later so at this point you might be feeling overwhelmed like oh my gosh Stefanie there are just so many different ways that English speakers reduce sounds what do we do how can we learn this

* 0938
Well a lot of you are gonna want to break this down study each sound individually and learn how the speech is connected and learn all the rules for this but I'm telling you that there are hudreds of rules and it's gonna take you a very long time to learn them unless you're some kind of genius of something what I recommend is that you just listen more to English and repeat things as you hear them close your eyes don't think about how things are spelled just close your eyes and listen to what you're truly hearing because if you really listen you'll notice that we eliminate sounds you'll notice that we change sounds completely and then if you want to sound like a << native >> speaker you have to incorporate those changes as well don't stick to pronouncing things exactly as you read them in a textbook because then you will sound like a textbook okay and people just don't talk like that that's not natural

* 1033, where did you get them, lot of the time
alright I have a few more examples for you the next one is where did you get them where did you get them
ものすごく高速で音が変化し脱落する例である。真似られたら真似て味わってほしい。

I actually said this the other day to my nephew but I didn't say like that I say oh where'd you get'em where'd you get'em so listen where did you became where'd you where'd you and then get them became get'em get'em where'd you get'em so I'm not even saying them it's crazy right now the word 'of' a lot of the time reduces to 'ah' right so I just said a lot of the time I said it well but what's not usually what I say I'll say a lot ah the time a lot ah the time a lott a lot of the time

これはlotの「t」が弾音化した例。これは高速化に有利なのだ。通常の「t」では息の圧をあげて、おとす。弾音化ではその変化がないだけ時間がかせげる。つまり、ついてゆくのが楽になる。

* 1116, I don't know to do it
all right now I have another sentence with how I could say I don't know how to do it

これもものすごい高速化で音が変化し脱落した例である。

but instead of saying that I just say I don't know hada do it I don't know hada do it and I don't know is ah dn't know it's not even I is 'ah' like I ah dn't know hada do it ah dn't know do you know and there were I said do you know I didn't say 'do' I said 'da' da you know da you know da you know and my final tips about reducing sounds changing them eliminating them is for individual words you'll notice that in American English

* 1200, for her, well, alright
we don't say 'for' a lot like it's 'for her' we say 'fur' hey yeah it's fur her it's for her and we also don't say the word well we don't say 'Well' I could call you later we say 'wol' I could call you later wol wol wol I could call you later and then other words like 'all right' we don't really say all right

for、willは曖昧母音化で高速に対応してる。alrightは「L」の脱落で対応してる。

we just say a'right a'right a'ritght basically we eliminate the 'L' all right you guys that's it I gave you a ton of examples in this video again I know it can be really frustrating but the point of this video was not to teach you every single reduction and deletion that we make in fast speech it was just to make you more aware of certain changes that you will hear so you can start listening better learning them and incorporating them into you own speech so you can sound more like a << native >> English speaker anyhow that's it for this video if you guys want a free guide on 79 words that you still say wrong these are words that are very very simple everyday common words but a lot of << non-native >> English speakers mess them up if you guys want this guide go ahead and in the description of this video you'll get the link you'll be able to download it and listen to the audio file right away and hopefully you're not making any of these mistakes with these simple words are you guys that's it and I'll see you in another video bye

* まとめ
どうだったか。ここでは、まず、英語喉習得の王道は聞き真似ることであること。これを実行してぶつかる問題だが、はっきりとした強音は頑張ればできそう。代名詞などをふくむ弱音は、あまりの高速についてゆけないかも。この問題には、まずイントネーションが大事、高速化による音の変化と脱落が大事。こういうことがわかったはずである。

今回は英語喉の世界の紹介、その奥深さの紹介が主眼だった。初学者がこれで英語喉を実践することも困難だったとおもう。次回以降だが、この説明をもっと整理しておこない、英語喉の筋肉について、その躍動を痛みがかんじられほど説明したい。

(2につづく)


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